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Commonly Used Metal Processing Methods - Grinding
Sep 04, 2017

Commonly used metal processing methods - grinding

Grinding with grinding wheels or other abrasives (such as Whetstone, sand tile, grinding head, abrasive belt and grinding paste, etc.) on the workpiece processing, the main movement is the rotation of the grinding wheel. The grinding wheel is made up of abrasives, binders and pores, and plays a grinding role. Abrasives with high hardness, good wear resistance, good heat resistance, good toughness, and has a sharp shape. Grinding wheel is actually a comprehensive effect of abrasive particles on the surface of the workpiece cutting and furrow and sliding three effects. In grinding, the abrasive itself is gradually blunted by the sharp, which makes the cutting effect worse and the cutting force become larger. When the cutting force exceeds the strength of the adhesive, the rounded abrasive particles fall off and reveal a new layer of abrasive particles, resulting in the self sharpening of the grinding wheel". But the chip and the broken grit will still grind the wheel.

Grinding is divided into rough, fine grinding, fine grinding and mirror grinding. The coarse grinding accuracy can reach IT9 ~ IT8, and the surface roughness Ra is 10 to 1.25 mu m, and the precision of grinding can reach Ra to 0.4 ~ 0.2 mu m. Mirror grinding; surface roughness Ra can reach 0.01 M. when grinding the blade, so smooth processing, high precision surface roughness Ra ~ IT6, 1.25 ~ 0.63 m; fine grinding accuracy can reach IT6 ~ IT5, surface roughness Ra. Grinding in the past is generally used in semi finishing and finishing, the surface roughness of Ra can reach 1.25 to 0.01 mu m, and even up to Ra, 0.1 to 0.008 M. Another characteristic of grinding process on metal materials can be used in Machining Hardened, hardened steel, heat-resistant steel and special alloy materials and other hard materials. Grinding to volume can be very small, in bad hair preprocessing procedures such as forging, stamping, precision casting precision increasing, grinding is directly improve an important processing method for workpiece precision. Different grinding methods can be produced by the different combinations of the grinding workpiece and the grinding tool in relative motion. As more and more kinds of mechanical products are used in forming surface, forming grinding and profiling grinding are more and more widely used. Therefore, grinding is often used as the final machining step.

Grinding with high hardness, the chip can be excised thin; abrasive grains such as high performance, can obtain better surface quality of grinding wheel; special self off the blunt sand off in a timely manner, timely update; grinding with high temperature, easy to produce the characteristics of burn phenomenon.

When grinding, the heat generated is large enough to be cooled by sufficient cutting fluid. According to different functions, grinding can be divided into two types: central grinding and centerless grinding. The center is the two top hole grinding workpiece grinding in grinding machine before and after the top position, the position error can be corrected; centerless grinding is the machined workpiece surface itself, not the position error correction, the accuracy can reach IT7 ~ IT6, roundness error is about 0.005mm, the cylindricity error is + 0.004mm/100mm, surface the roughness of Ra less than 1.6 m, generally used for batch production or mass production.

Gear grinding methods are mainly forming grinding and generating grinding. When grinding, because the tool "(different abrasives) and tool generally used in metal cutting, and the cutting speed is very high, so a grinding through sliding (elastic deformation), furrow (plastic deformation) and cutting (chip formation, the abrasive front outflow) process. The workpiece is formed on the surface of the thermal stress and deformation stress. The abrasive on the cutting surface of the sliding, ploughing and cutting and abrasive conditions and processed material properties. The three processes mentioned above are related to the wheel speed. The higher the wheel speed is, the smaller the elastic-plastic zone is. The elastoplastic region is also related to the actual grinding amount of each abrasive particle.

Hole grinding is the precise machining method of hole. The accuracy is up to IT7, and the surface roughness Ra is 1.6 ~ 0.4 mu m. The grinding hole not only can achieve higher dimensional accuracy and surface quality, but also can improve the hole position accuracy and the straightness of the hole axis. The working conditions of hole grinding are poor, the diameter of the grinding wheel is small, the rigidity is poor, the chip discharge and heat dissipation are difficult, and the productivity is low


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